INTRODUCTION Since the antiquity the health is seen as a good individual, which the treatment of true infectious epidemics that certainly can so only have existed and the affected individuals was treated, whereas excessively said the healthy ones certainly ranks of side without nenhumaou any attention of the cuidadores of the time. For example, we can cite the receitadores of many frmacos for few illnesses, vulgarly called boticrios, were very popular figures for return of the average age, as the science of the health still engatinhava for what we have in the present time, was very common to deal with only one individual a family whereas nothing he was done regarding the excessively integrant ones of the family, independent of what it could be treated (). It is intended by means of this article to characterize the performance and importance of the nurse in the scope of the collective health. In view of that currently he is one of the professionals who work in communities integrating jointly with other professionals, responsibilities for the supply of health. METHODOLOGY Is about a bibliographical research, of descriptive nature, carried through by means of a data-collecting concerning the work of the nurse in the collective health. For the elaboration of the research it was necessary to consult works published in scientific articles that treated to the collective subject health and in books on primary attention and PSF. The described ones chosen had been: Collective health, nurse, primary attention, PSF. ANALYSIS AND QUARREL OF THE DATA HISTORICAL CONTEXT AND EVOLUTIVO OF THE THOUGHT OF THE COLLECTIVE HEALTH The first act of the action of the nursing for the collective was attendance given for Florence Nightingale, considered one of the biggest examples of the nursing and still consecrated as mother of this science, during its notable participation in the War of the Crimia, that carried through atendimentos to the wounded of the war of both the sides, showing respect for the life of the fellow creature above of the split generated for the occasion, in way that all received the cares necessary and was kept in different places of the not sick ones, so that these last ones later did not come to adoecerem ().