It is no secret to anyone that the elongation and muscle flexibility, is one of the physical abilities to which they are not given the real value it has, however, there are programs and plans practice where evidence ignored the presence of such capacity. However, football does not require extreme degrees of flexibility, if anything is needed labor mobility, which is nothing more than the levels required by the joints in your usual articulate movements or normal range. Moreover, in regard to the objective of flexibility, there are three key areas: injury prevention, optimization of physical work and recovery or regeneration thereof. It is for this reason that flexibility is one of the physical qualities that can and should be exercised throughout the season, taking into account issues to be discussed later, but obey the discretion of the coach or physical trainer in that phase or step locate the training session, depending on the objective to achieve. According Drobnic F, J and J Gonzalez de Suso Martinez Garcia (2004), along with the flexibility of muscles there are two features must be integrated as a whole. Flexibility: The possibility of achieving a better balance in the range of movement in different positions. Extensibility: The ability to let the muscle possesses stretch, which will be mediated by the intrinsic elasticity of the muscle itself. Elasticity: The ability to have the muscle to return to their normal position after being stretched. Types of Stretching Stretching muscle Liabilities: The athlete does not perform any activity or contribute to the exercise, ie, is assisted by an external agent (companion) which mobilizes the joint segment. Active Stretching: Also called ‘single lift’, as you run the player. It is performed when the muscle is stretched by voluntary contraction of the antagonists. Passive Stretching ‘Assets: We are facing a combined stretch when the onset of motion is performed by an external force, after which the player actively tries to maintain the position for several seconds. Stretching Post ‘isometric: It is one that seeks to build mutual relaxation phase that occurs in a muscle after a strong isometric contraction of both agonist and antagonist. Thanks to this method, it activates and strengthens the agonist and antagonist muscles, helping to determine the pattern of coordinated movement. Therefore, strengthen both body segments following a severe stretch. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Covelo Matthew (2006), states in his work ‘Flexibility in football’, that the method was developed by Dr. Kabat in 1949 and adapted for the sport by various authors (Solverborn, 1987 Gohl, 1995 Balk, 1997 Geoffroy, 2001, Adler et al, 2003). The method is based on the realization of a stretch for 20 seconds followed by an isometric contraction of muscle stretching between 6-10 seconds followed by a relaxation phase. To recapitulate the stages of the method, results in the following sequence: stretching ‘contraction – relaxation. However, taking into account the above concepts, is hereby presents a methodological proposal based on the optimization and maintaining flexibility. First he must consider that the main objective of flexibility training in soccer, is closely related to the development and maintenance of a degree of joint mobility and reserve base, allowing the player much better implementation of technical gestures as helping to protect against possible injury. Likewise, be sought with these loads better assimilate the training sessions, recover faster and maintain proper balance and postural artromuscular, which in turn will serve as a preventative, ie prophylactic.
Human limb joints can withstand considerable pressure, especially the joints of the feet. Most difficult to account for the hip joint. The upper end of the femur, its head, articulated with the bones of the pelvis, are spherical shape with a diameter of about 4 centimeters. It is well-fitting to a spherical cavity of the pelvic bones, the second element of the joint. Due to the spherical form of articulated surfaces of this joint multi-axis, ie articulated in its bones have the opportunity to perform three types of movements, allowing the movement of the legs in six directions. Man is able to make a leg forward and retract as it happens while walking, take the leg to the side and in towards the other foot, and finally turning it around the long axis and clockwise in the opposite direction, so that the fingers instead of its normal position can be rotated and the right and left. When a person makes the usual step, his foot on which he had just drawn, rotated with respect to the human body by about 57 , with the femoral head, sliding on the surface of the acetabulum, is a path equal to 2 centimeters. Pressure on the femoral head the entire mass of the human body is sufficiently large.
When a person with a body weight about 70 kilograms of compliance with immobility, relying on both legs, his hips falls load equal to 55-60 kilograms. However, the actual pressure experienced by these joints, much more – it is 1,6 times greater than the weight based on their body parts. This is because the center of gravity of the human body is not located directly above the line connecting the femoral head, and therefore to maintain a vertical posture several major pelvic muscles contract, the force pressing the surface articulated to each other and not allowing the body to bend. Therefore, the real pressure on these joints have semidesyatikilogrammovogo person reaches 95 pounds, and if he has behind him a backpack, which weighs 20 kilograms, the pressure will grow to 125 kilograms. For porter, who had raised on his back a sack of flour weighing 50 kilograms, it increases up to 175 pounds, well, how much pressure have hips athlete-lifter, lifting heavy rod, count yourself. Bone are highly durable.
Tibia human being in an upright position, is able to withstand the weight of 1800 pounds, and thigh – a half tons, the weight of the average car. Crushed bone much harder than breaking. At high bone strength, however, have brittle, and therefore injuries, bruises, falls are often accompanied by fractures. Most frequently occurring fractures of the femur in her neck. The fact that the shape of the femur, in contrast to other long bones, is far from the ideal line. With an advanced human neck of femur moves away from its main part at an angle of 115 to 140 . In other words, the upper part of the femur is shaped like an arc. Therefore, when falling on his legs apart or side bending of the bone is strengthened, and in the neck, the thinnest part, there is a fracture.